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Saturday, 21 July 2018

Classification of surveying


Classification of surveying
Surveys may be secondarily classified under no. of headings which define the uses or purpose of resulting maps.

Classification based upon nature of field:
There are three types of surveying based upon the nature of field which are as follows:

Land Surveying: It can be further classified as i) Topographical survey ii) Cadastrial Survey and iii) City Survey. It generally deals with natural or artificial features on land such as rivers, streams, lakes, wood, hills, roads, railways, canals, towns, water supply systems, buildings & properties etc.
Marine Surveying: Marine or hydrographic survey deals with bodies of water for purpose of navigation, water supply, harbour works or for determination of mean sea level. The work consists in measurement of discharge of streams, making topographic survey of shores and banks, taking and locating soundings to determine the depth of water and observing the fluctutations of the ocean tide.
Astronomical Surveying: The astronomical survey offers the surveyor means of determining the absolute location of any point or the absolute location of and direction of any line on the surface of the earth. This consists in observations to the heavenly bodies such as the sun or any fixed star.
Classification based on object:
Based on object, there are four types of surveying which are as follows:

Geological Surveying
Mine Surveying
Archaeological surveying
Military surveying
Classification based on instruments used:
Based on various types of instruments used, surveying can be classified into six types.

Chain surveying
Compass surveying
Plane table surveying
Theodolite surveying
Tacheometric surveying
Photographic surveying
Classification based on methods used:
Based on methods adopted, surveying can be categorized into:

Triangulation surveying
Traverse surveying

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